ASTRONOMY as we all know that its one of oldest natural science in this world which is the study of celestial objects like planets, stars ,etc . Process going on inside such objects either chemical or physical come under the category of astronomy .We don't know what is going on in them.What is happening there ,but we will find out with the help of astronomy .
Since ancient times astronomy has been a major field of interest. Prehistoric cultures have left astronomical artifacts such monuments and early civilizations like Egyptians , Babylonians , Greeks , Chinese , Indians etc. They performed odd but effective methods to observe night sky . But as time passed technology replaced those methods . Every one wants to know, everyone at least think once that what is there in those distant starts? why these stars shine ? We will find it out just we need to explore that vast mysterious sky .
Astronomy was thriving in Pre-Columbian America, where interest followed the Babylonians, significant advances in astronomy were made in ancient Greece and the Hellenistic world. Greek astronomy is characterized from the start by seeking a rational, physical explanation for celestial phenomena. In the 3rd century BC, Aristarchus of Samos estimated the size and distance of the Moon and Sun, and was the first to propose a heliocentric model of the solar system. In the 2nd century BC, Hipparchus discovered precession, calculated the size and distance of the Moon and invented the earliest known astronomical devices such as the astrolabe.Hipparchus also created a comprehensive catalog of 1020 stars, and most of the constellations of the northern hemisphere derive from Greek astronomy.The Antikythera mechanism (c. 150–80 BC) was an early analog computer designed to calculate the location of the Sun, Moon, and planets for a given date. Astronomy held a high position in the Mayan civilization, which dominated Mesoamerica for two thousand years prior to the arrival of Europeans\\. The Maya people believed that patterns in nature were very important, and that it should be possible to use astrology to predict the future based on past experience. This made the observation of celestial cycles very important, since they would give advance knowledge of future events, and Mayans dutifully kept track of motions of the Sun and Moon. With the accumulation of centuries of observation, Mayan astronomers were able to predict eclipses and measure the lengths of heavenly cycles very well.During the Middle Ages, astronomy was mostly stagnant in medieval Europe, at least until the 13th century. However, astronomy flourished in certain parts of the world. This led to the emergence of the first astronomical observatories in the Muslim world by the early 9th century. FAMOUS ASTRONOMERS
He was librarian of Alexendria who resurrected with geocentric theory and combined with centuries on data of planetary motions. The Ptolemaic system began the first paradigm on framework of understanding the nature of our solar system.
unfortunately the Ptolemaic framework was extremely complicated in understanding the retrograde motion .
He was first true observer .He built the danish observatory using sextants he showed that sun is much farther away than moon from earth simple trigonometry .Tycho's measurements were used to show that there was no detectable parallax with the naked eye, in support of the geocentric theory. So, even though his observations were the best for his time, his result was wrong.
Student of Tycho Brahe who used the Brahe's data base to formulate the laws of planetary motions which correct the problem of epicycles in heliocentric theory.
He developed the laws of motion. He was the first man who explore space with instrument called telescope .He destroyed the idea of perfect geocentric theory with the following five discoveries: Spot on sun, maria on moon, milky way is made of lots of stars, Venus has phases and Jupiter has moons .
He developed the laws of universal gravitation, invented calculus , theory of light or we can say after the newton astronomy entered in the new era .
Off to the 18-20th century, with discovery of the outer planets and where astronomy moves towards discoveries in stellar and galactic areas, next paradigm shift occurs in early 1960's with NASA deep space probes